Information & Resources For Stakeholders – Employers

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 Ergonomics Programs  – Articles and Publications

 Making the Business Case

Ergonomics Programs – Articles and Publications

Easy Ergonomics, A Practical Approach for Improving the Workplace(2007).  Cal/OSHA, Consultation Service, California Department of Industrial Relations.

Elements of Ergonomics Programs (1997). NIOSH. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-117.

Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention Program Implementation Guide Occupational Health & Safety Agency for Healthcare in BC (OHSAH).

Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics -3rd Edition (2006). Edited by Gavriel Salvendy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates orhttp://www.amazon.com/

Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety (2012 2nd edition). Edited by Pascale Carayon. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates or http://www.amazon.com/

Just Culture – Balancing Safety and Accountability (2007). Sydney Dekker. Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Nurses’ Perception of Their Work Environment, Health, and Well-Being: A Qualitative Perspective (2004). Geiger-Brown,J., et. al. AAOHN J.  Vol.52(1):16-22.

Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses (2008). R. Hughes (ed). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

Practice Issues in Prevention through Design. Mei-Li Lin. Journal of Safety Research 39 (2008) 157 – 159. Rapporteur’s Report, Research and Statistical Services, National Safety Council, http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/PtD/pdfs/Lin.pdf.

Preventing Back Injuries in Healthcare Settings (2008). NIOSH Science Blog. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

Training Resources


Safe Patient Handling in Health Care: Applied Ergonomics for Nurses and Health Care Workers and Patient Orientation (2004). This training program consists of DVD training materials for both employees and patients. A comprehensive train the trainer guide and PPT presentation is also included in this toolkit. Contact Pisith Kong at Oregon Nurses Association. Email:[email protected] for more information

Safe Resident Handling Program Guide for Long Term Care Facilities (2009). Oregon OSHA. The purpose of this guide is to provide step-by-step instructions to assist long term care facilities in developing an effective and sustainable SRH program.

Slider Sheets and Safety Time Out and The 15 Second Patient Mobility Assessment – Pictorial Training Tools for Safe Patient Handling Practices courtesy of Kaiser Permanente NW.


A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Training & Education for the Protection of Workers (Jan 2010). NIOSH blog and NIOSH Publication No. 2010-127

Effect of training and lifting equipment for preventing back pain in lifting and handling: systematic review (2008).  Martimo, K.P, et al. BMJ, Jan 2008: 336-429.

Organizational Predictors of a Successful Implementation of an Ergonomic Training Program (2007). Korunka. C., et. al. Proceedings of the HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS SOCIETY 51st ANNUAL MEETING 2007: 967-971.

Stretching at Work for Injury Prevention: Issues, Evidence, and Recommendations (2003). Hess, J. A. & Hecker, S. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 18(5):331-338.

Making the Business Case


Why an Ergonomics Program makes good business sense! Cornell University Ergonomics Web

Cost of musculoskeletal injuries: Outcome-based cost benefit analysis. Source: Patient Safety Center of Inquiry (Tampa, FL) , Veterans Health Administration.

 Websites – Injury Cost Calculators:

  •  Safety Pays tool from Oregon OSHA. Safe Patient Handling Pays allows employers to enter the cost of injuries experienced in their workplace and the profit margin the program computes additional sales revenue necessary to cover the incurred costs of injuries. Its primary function is to raise awareness and concern about the negative effects of injuries on business.
  • OSHA Safety & Health management E-Tool

A Practical Guide To Finance and Budgeting. Skills for Nurse Managers K.T. Waxman. (2nd Ed.). HCPro.

Ergonomics Programs – General

Assessing Cost/Benefits of Human Factors. Rouse, W., & Boff, K. Chapter 49 p1617 to 1633. Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics (2nd edition). 1997. John Wiley & Sons.

The Business Case for Safety and Health (Sept 2009) NIOSH blog

Ergonomics to the Rescue A Cost-Justification Case Study. (April, 2001). Rodrigues, C. C. Authors Professional Safety, (46)4.

Estimating the effectiveness of ergonomics interventions through case studies: implications for predictive cost-benefit analysis (2008). Goggins, R.W., Spielholz, P., & Nothstein, G.L. J Safety Res. 39(3):339-44. Epub 2008 Apr 28.

Health Care Injuries: Worse than you think

This video is an amusing look at the serious reality of injuries to BC’s health care workers from WorkSafe BC but is also applicable to US health care workers

Office Ergonomics Do They Work? An analysis of the effectiveness of the state of Oregon’s office ergonomics initiative (2005). Brace T. Professional Safety, Sept. 2005:51-55.

Quality of the working environment and productivity: Research findings and case studies (2004). Multiple case studies that describe various methods to demonstrate return on investments of safety and health initiatives. De Greef et al. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work.

The Cost of Safety. (2004) Behm, M., Veltri,A., & Kleinsorge, I.K. Professional Safety, April 2004:22-29.

Worker Protection: Private Sector Ergonomics Programs Yield Positive Results(1997). Includes case studies from healthcare. United States General Accounting Office. Report: #HEHS-97-163.

Safe Patient Handling Programs

A business case for patient care ergonomic interventions (2005). Siddharthan, K.; Nelson, A. Nursing Administration Quarterly. (29)1. 63-71.

Ergonomics Best Practices for Extended-Care Facilities from the Ohio Bureau for Workers Compensation

Implementing a Resident Lifting System in an Extended Care Hospital Demonstrating Cost–Benefit (2002). Speigel, J; Ronald, L. A.; Tate, R. B.; Colby, T. AAOHN Journal,(50)3.

Improving Patient and Worker Safety: Opportunities for Synergy, Collaboration and Innovation (2012). Safe Patient Handling is discussed in Chapter 3.The Joint Commission. New Jan 2013

Implementing a Resident Lifting System in an Extended Care Hospital Demonstrating Cost–Benefit (2002). Speigel, J; Ronald, L. A.; Tate, R. B.; Colby, T. AAOHN Journal,(50)3.

Making the Business Case to Initiate, Sustain and Evaluate Safe Patient Handling Programs Part 1 (2012). Enos, L.  American Journal of Safe Patient Handling and Movement, (1)3: 8-15.New Jan 2013

Making the Business Case to Initiate, Sustain and Evaluate Safe Patient Handling Programs Part 2 (2012). Enos, L. American Journal of Safe Patient Handling and Movement, (1)4: 8-16.New Jan 2013

Lifting Patients/Residents/Clients in Health Care, Washington State 2005 the final report from the WA State Lifting in Health Care Task Force that contains case studies and data from health care facilities in the state. Note: The link is to the report summary only, please contact SHARP for the entire report – Phone: 1-888-66-SHARP (toll-free) or 360-902-5667 or E-mail [email protected]

Link between Safe Patient Handling and Patient Outcomes in Long Term Care. (2008). Nelson, A, et. al.  Rehabilitation Nursing. Vol 33. No. 1.

Long-Term Effectiveness of “Zero-Lift Program” in Seven Nursing Homes and One Hospital (1999). Garg, A., from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

The Economic Impact of Implementing an Ergonomic Plan (2007). Morgan, A. & Chow, S.  Nurs Econ. 2007;25(3):150-156.

Saving costs, saving health care providers’ backs, and creating a safe patient environment.(2010) Hunter, B., Branson, M., & Davenport, D.Nurs Econ. 28(2):130-4

Hospital Team Standing In A Corridor

Other Resources

ANA National Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Standards and Implementation Guide

A Variety of Ergonomics topics from Oregon OSHA including
This site contains links to a variety of tools & resources related to ergonomics

NIOSH Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders resource page

The OSHA Safety and Health Topics for Ergonomics.
This site contains links to general resources related to ergonomics

Ergonomics Ideas Bank - A searchable collection of ideas, that may help you reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in your workplace from theWashington State Dept. of Labor & Industries.

Ergoweb supports the ergonomics community with industry news, resources and a collaboration community. Various articles and resources.

Worker Safety in Hospitals a resource fromOSHA to prevent worker injuries, help patients and save resources for hospitals. Click here for more information.

Where To Get Hospital Financial Data

For hospitals in Oregon

For hospitals in Washington State

Injury Data -State and Federal

Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Injury, Illness and Fatality data

Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Statistics (OR DCBS)
Reports on OR-OSHA safety and health inspections and consultative services program, standards violated, compliance officer performance, summaries of injury and illness data by industry, and Oregon data from the BLS Occupational Safety and Health Survey.

2011 Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index
Produced annually, by Liberty Mutual Group, the Workplace Safety Index identifies the leading causes of the most disabling U.S. workplace injuries based on data reported from 1998 (the baseline year for Workplace Safety Index data) through the most recent year for which data are available – in this case 2009.

ANSI Z10-2012 Now Available The newly revised standard, "American National Standard for Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems" (ANSI Z10-2012), is available fromthe American Society of Safety Engineers. The standard provides an overall blueprint for widespread benefits in occupational safety and health, as well as in productivity, financial performance, quality and other organizational and business objectives.provides management system requirements and guidelines for improving EHS.  

Other Resources for Oregon Employers

 Employer-at-injury program (EAIP)

The State of Oregon Employer-at-Injury Program encourages the early return to work of injured workers by helping defray an employer's early return-to-work costs and reducing claim costs. A maximum of $2,500 is available for worksite modification.

The Preferred Worker Program (PWP).

The Preferred Worker Program (in Oregon)allows injured workers to offer unique hiring incentives to Oregon employers. You can offer Preferred Worker Program benefits to your employer-at-injury or a new employer (in Oregon), or both. The PWP can authorize a maximum of $25,000 for worksite modifications needed because of injury-caused restrictions and limitations